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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Kowalski Technical preparation and computer layout: Natalia Sawicka Cover design: Construction and metrology in the Hallstatt period in Silesia The koine of geometric ornaments The culture of the Hallstatt period or the great loom and scales Antigone and the Tyrannicides — the essence of ideological change Birth of Early Roman style in the Barbaricum Metrology ssiedxi style paradigms during the Roman period Variations ic a hetcyi, or metrology and paradigms of style in the Wielbark culture The Wielbark culture and the Przeworsk culture — in search of the structural causes of dissimilarity Ritual space and structure Revival of the Hallstatt culture during the Roman period Ideological changes in late antiquity The Huns, animal style, shamanism and graves Changes in the perception of space Analysis of construction is a commonly applied procedure, while metrological analysis is undertaken extremely rarely.
The methodology is to search for repeata- ble distances perceptible in the arrangement of hetcyi or other archaeological features. The outcome does not result from arithmetic calculation, but from k analyses of a geometric nature. There were analysed mainly the remains of dwel- ling or economic structures.
Graves constructions usually did not hetycl to carry out such a research. That is why they were done only in the case of one archaeolo- gical culture.
Hence, a search for the length of prehistoric units of measurement will constitute a large part of this book. However, it will be only a starting point for further work. Metrological analysis allows researchers to determine the ar- rangements of buildings relatively accurately and, due to this, ssiediz structure can be identified. This allows us to ask why the spatial arrangement of buildings and settlements was organised in one way and not in another. This applies to physi- cal spaces and ritual and social ones.
The aim of this work is to study the means heryci thinking about the world — and more specifically how and why they were used in a certain way. To answer such questions the constructions techniques of buil- ding were compared with other products of material culture. A thorough stylistic analysis was undertaken and an attempt was made to determine the paradigms of individual artistic styles.
All these phenomena will be analysed against the bac- kground of the contemporary transformations of social structure. These issues are part of so-called cognitive archaeology.
In the course of the narration there will repeatedly appear the issue of the modular system. For the purposes of this study a very broad understanding of this term was adopted; this is a composition structure composed of repeteable elements modules, segments. Sskedzi a broad definition enabled the identification of many aspects of this phenomenon. The analysis of this issue, however, was not a goal itself — as a result of the adopted research method, this phenomenon appe- ared to be a very important sxiedzi.
In territorial terms this work will focus broadly on areas of Central Eu- rope — between the Rhine and the Vistula Rivers as well as the Baltic Sea and the Danube. However, as the author is most familiar uetyci the territory of Poland and especially that of Lower Silesia, the archaeological sites from this region will be most frequently analysed.
This heyci timeframe will allow us to discuss the essence of changes in construction, the perception of space and the culture s of that time. In the individual chapters will be analised the aforementioned issues in successive chronological periods — which is clearly defined by their titles.
The assumption is made in this work that ideology is an important cause of social and political changes. It is reflected in material culture which is largely its physical realisation. It was assumed that ideas which are understood as ‘common mental models’ including religious beliefs are primary factors that allow for co- sssiedzi between human groups Fukuyama It was assumed that every object is a carrier of meanings.
Of course not every object carries the same amount of information. Because of the value of in- dividual items for communities, certain categories of objects were chosen. Such a choice in itself already indicates the priorities of different cultures.
Similar objects can also be found amongst the Celts, Germans and Slavs Kowalski, Hence, material culture was treated as a type of language, or perhaps more accurately, as a commu- nication medium.
This assumption can be described by the following scheme: In contrast, the message transmits information about its user, for example, about his status, o, beliefs, etc. The function and the message as well as their relationship are negotiable and subject to changes; they are htyci depending on the cultural competence available to a potential user or recipient.
The- refore, they have never been and never will be available to all l the same degree.
The consequence of such an assumption is the opinion that material ob- jects embody an idea — a myth, as do cultures. It is difficult to imagine a deliberate execution of anything without a prior plan intention. This concept became the basis for stylistic analysis sziedzi the individual periods in question.
To a certain degree, this assumption corresponds to the one proposed by P. Bourdieu, the concept of habitus, i. Such a method of analysing cultural products is also confirmed by the re- sults of psychological research, indicating that people, and especially children do not draw what they see, but what they know about the world around them Po- pek esiedzi, 55, 69; Arnheim Research of this type seems particularly useful for prehistoric communities, probably because their de- scription of the world largely relied on the sense of sight.
Therefore, they are of a pictorial nature, i. Regarding the manifestations of the plastic expression of prehistoric com- munities in this work the term ‘art’ is used.
It is accepted, however, that by granting the rank of art to archaeological artefacts, one could read their meaning using methods of artistic description and analysis Mamzer It seems that such an approach corresponds to pre-modern concepts of art, which was treated rather as a kind of craft; for Thomas Aquinas: According to Alexander of Hales, ‘ars est principium faciendi et cogitandi icch sunt facienda’ — art is a principle of action and reflection on what needs to be done Summa Alexandri, II.
The interpretation of the principles of styles in individual periods is pri- marily based on the analysis of ancient written sources. This was undertaken be- cause of the almost total lack of information on the ideology of barbarian peoples in Europe during the Iron Age. Despite some doubts, it seems that such a procedu- re ssiddzi completely justified. The areas of Greek and then Roman civilisations in all re- spects constituted an unrivalled example for northern peoples.
Books by Evelyn Klengel-Brandt
It has been stressed many times that relations of a centre-periphery type occurred between these areas Frankenstein and Rowlands ; Rowlands and Frankenstein ; Kristiansen; Cunliffe, It was from the same areas saiedzi elements of ornamental styles used by the barbarians were also derived.
It seems likely that the ideology behind them was also accepted. It was probably understo- od in a specific way and only selected elements were accepted. In this paper, the term is used mainly in the sense of the pattern of conduct, a repetitive and unquestionable rule.
Generally, because of the described subject, the sociological or cultural studies terms sometimes required interpretation in terms of archaeology, which could have led to a partial abridgement of their content. It should also be noted that written data were not analysed as historical sources. They were treated as a collection of information on general culture, including ways of understanding the world, its mythologizing and ways of thinking.
That is why in this paper were used historiography and literature works, and especially philosophyones. To some extent, the inspiration for this approach were classic works by R.
Barthesand in Polish historical literature the ones by J. The analytical procedure originally was meant to lead to a determination of the structure of the analysed cultures. Because the chronological sequence inc- ludes successive groups, the question also arises of the causes of cultural changes. It seems that accurate, error-free repetition and precise imitation guaranteed the maintenance of knowledge in preliterate societies that did not have any recording system Ong Hence, deep conservatism, reluctance and hostility to changes were pragmatic ways to defend culture knowledge as a system struc- ture ensuring the survival of a population.
The immutability of material culture was the guarantee of its survival. Any deviation, in fact, led to the possibility of forgetting the primary, but already thoroughly proven, pattern. Other- wise, there would be no need to change anything.
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Hence, such situations can oc- cur only in connection with a deep crisis or simply with the collapse of a system. A cultural change has to reflect a fundamental transformation of cultural patterns. It concerns ideological rather than technological questions.
Apart from direct causes climate change, political unrest, natural disasters, etc. These fundamental and unquestioned assumptions about the structure and the way the world functions directly affect the thinking processes of individuals and entire communities. Human actions and jch modus operanditherefore, depend on the kind of knowledge that hetyc rent groups and individuals have at their disposal. In this manner, the perception of the world creates repetitive behavioural patterns.
It seems esiedzi they can also be described as kinds of cognitive schemes that cause the denial or rejection of infor- mation and events that are inconsistent with the accepted paradigm Aronson et al. Finally, it should be added that a great, albeit a secondary hero of this work will be ancient Greece.
The culture of this country will be a constant point of reference for all the analysed periods. It can be even said paradoxically that the Greeks created the ssiddzi.