Introduction to Information Technology Turban, Rainer and Potter John Wiley Frequently it is not possible to manually process the needed information fast. Differentiate between the two major types of software. Describe the general functions of the operating system. Differentiate among types of operating systems . As you read Introduction to Information Technology, you’ll discover that IT integrates and enhances all Efraim Turban, R. Kelly Rainer, Richard E. Potter. Wiley.

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Explain how a database approach overcomes the problems associated with the traditional file environment. Intrroduction the three most common data models. A bit binary digit represents the smallest unit of data a computer can process a 0 or a 1 ; a byte, represents a single character, which can be a letter, a number, or a symbol.

A logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number. A logical grouping of related fields. A logical grouping of related records. A logical grouping of related files. A person, place, thing, or event about which information potetr maintained in a record. Each characteristic or quality describing a particular. The identifier field that uniquely identifies a record. An identifier field that has some identifying information, but typically does not identify the file with complete accuracy.

In qnd traditional file management environment, each application has a specific data file related to it, containing all the data records needed by the application TG3.

A logical group of related files technilogy stores data and the associations among them. An abstract model of a database from the user or business perspective.

Introduction to Information Technology, 3rd Edition

Layout that shows how a database is actually arranged on storage devices. The process of designing a database by organizing data entities to be used and identifying the relationships among them.

Document that shows data entities and attributes and relationships among them. A grouping of entities of a given type. A particular entity within an entity class. An attribute that identifies an entity instance. The conceptual linking of entities in a database.

The number of entities in a relationship is the degree of the relationship. Relationships between two items are common and are called binary relationships. M one-to-many relationship, a single- entity instance of one type is related to many- entity instance of another type.


M many-to-many relationship, a single- entity instance of one type is related to many- entity of another type and vice versa. The software program or group of programs that provides access to a database.

The plan for the actual, physical arrangement and location of data in the direct access storage devices DASDs of a database management system. Logical versus Physical View. Definition of the way data in a DBMS are conceptually structured. Data definition language DDL: Set of statements that describe a database structure all record types and data set types.

The logical description of the entire database and the listing of all the data items and the relationships among them. The specific set of data from the database that is required by each application. Instructions used with higher-level programming languages to query the contents of the database, store or update information, and develop database applications. Structured query language SQL: Popular relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple instructions.

Database language that enables the user to fill out a grid form to construct a sample or description of the data wanted. Other types of data models include multidimensional, object-relational, hypermedia, embedded, and virtual Hierarchical and network DBMSs: Relational and multidimensional DBMSs relate data through information contained in the data. The strongest advantage of the hierarchical database approach is the speed and efficiency with which it can be searched for data.

The hierarchical model does have problems: Access to data in this model is predefined by the database administrator before the programs that access the data are written. Programmers must follow the hierarchy established by the data structure. The tables of rows and columns used in a relational database. A row of data in the relational database model.

A column of data in the relational database model. Three basic operations of a relational database: Access to data is predefined by exclusively hierarchical relationships, predetermined by administrator. Not all data are naturally hierarchical.

Introduction to Information Technology Turban, Rainer and Potter Copyright

NetworkMany more relationships can be defined. There is greater speed and efficiency than with relational database models. This is the most complicated database model to design, Implement, and maintain.


Greater query flexibility than withhierarchical model, but less than with relational model. Relational databaseConceptual simplicity; there are no predefined relationships among data. High flexibility in ad- hoc querying. New data and records can be added easily.

Processing efficiency and speed are lower. Data redundancy is common, requiring additional maintenance. Data model that adds new object storage capabilities to relational databases. Data model that stores chunks of information in nodes that can contain data in a variety of media; infodmation can branch to related data in any kind of relationship. Data model that contains locational data for overlaying on maps or images. Data model that can store decision rules that can be used for expert decision making.

The subset of a larger database provided for field workers. A database built into devices or into applications; designed to be self-sufficient and to require little or no administration. A database that consists only of software; manages data that can physically reside anywhere on the network and in a variety of formats. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section of the United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The publisher assumes no responsibility for error, omissions, or techjology caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the introductin herein. Technology Guide 3 Data and Database T IT for Management Prof. The database approach to data management provides significant advantages over the traditional file-based approach Define general data management concepts. File Organization Terms and Concepts Bit: Smallest unit of data; binary digit 0,1 Byte: Group of bits that represents a single.

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