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Mengliang ZhuJinghui ZhangYabin ZhouPeipei XingLei GongChaorui Su Dongdong QiHongwu DuYongzhong .. Chemical Reviews (21), The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (42), Mariana Oliveira takes hold of the branches of the coffee plant with her bare hands ( htm). For example, it was estimated that in seasonal influenza viruses Lei Deng, Ki Joon Cho, Walter Fiers and Xavier Saelens wrote the.

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On Saturdays, Brazilians in the se state of Minas Gerais take extra work on plantations where they harvest coffee with neither contract nor protective equipment.

The practice is illegal, and workers lose social security benefits to which they are entitled. Mariana Oliveira takes hold of the branches of the coffee plant with her bare hands and firmly pulls off berries and leaves so they land on a cloth spread out on the ground below.

Despite the risk of stepping on snakes and scorpions, the year-old woman wears only flip-flops on her otherwise bare feet.

On weekends, coffee is harvested without contracts or protective equipment | Danwatch

Often, as on this plantation, they work with neither a contract nor any kind of protective equipment. Coffee pickers must be provided with protective equipment free of charge — including gloves, boots, protective goggles and a hat that protects against sun and rain — according to regulations from the Brazilian Ministry of Dde and Employment.

It is illegal for both permanent and temporary employees to work without carteira assinadawhich means that an official contract is registered to their official work document, the Carteira de Trabalho.

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In addition, a law was passed in Brazil in specifically regulating temporary employment.

It made clear that temporary employees must also work with a carteira assinadabut lej they have fewer rights to social security benefits than permanent employees. According to Brazilian law, plantation owners must give their workers a contract and register their employment on the Carteira de Trabalhoan official work document that ensures that workers earn social security benefits like pension, sick pay, and unemployment compensation.

In addition, the law requires that coffee workers must wear gloves, protective goggles, boots, and a hat while harvesting.

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Employers must provide this equipment free of charge to their employees. The coffee harvesters are organised by a so-called gato cat, ed.

If they have an accident while working illegally on the weekend plantation, they have le right to government-funded sick pay, and their employer may fire them without compensation because they are unable to work.

He calls the members of the group every Friday to hear if they want to come out and work on the weekend.

Plantation owners in the area know that Pereira has a group of about 34 workers, so they call him to get workers into their 11718. At the beginning of the season, the group goes out to the plantation and harvests a small amount to see how productive its coffee plants are.

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They then negotiate a price per sack. A weekend worker picks coffee without gloves or other mandatory protective equipment.

We sit in the shade of a tree and eat together. He was once a coffee harvester himself, but hurt his knee and could no longer manage the physically demanding work.

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Since he does not have access to a location where he can store the coffee, he is forced to sell it at whatever price he is offered. With her bare hands, Mariana Oliveira has pulled leaves and berries branch by branch off the coffee bush, so that the cloth on the ground is now full. A young man wearing jeans and a baseball cap helps her separate out the leaves and transfer the red coffee berries into a sack.

During the week he is employed as a construction worker in the town, and on weekends he works here to save a little extra money. He says that he has worked on weekend plantations for the last two years.

In Brazil, teenagers as young as 16 may work the coffee harvest as long as the work does not interfere with their schooling.

It is illegal for children under 16 to work on the coffee plantations. It is more common to find children and teenagers working on weekend plantations like this one, in part because the work here is unregistered. Their real names are known to the editors. Danwatch only uses this kind of undercover technique when it is not possible to obtain information by another method, which was the case here.